What is Anophthalmia?
Anophthalmia is a medical term used to describe the absence of the globe and orbital tissue from the orbit. Anophthalmia and microphthalmia(small eyes) are used interchangeably since in most cases CT Scans show some remnants of either the globe or surrounding tissue. Anophthalmia/ microphthalmia (A/M) may affect one eye with the other eye being normal, or both eyes, resulting in blindness.
Anophthalmia is very rare but the exact incidence is unknown. One report from a prospective study of 50,000 newborns found an incidence of microphthalmia of 0.22 per 1,000 live births.
Anophthalmia can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired later in life. Congenital anophthalmia can occur alone or along with other birth defects. Cases of anophthalmia may result from inherited genetic mutations, sporadic genetic mutations, chromosome abnormalities, prenatal environmental insult or unknown.
What kind of research and treatment is available?
A newborn with anophthalmia will need to see an ophthalmologist and ocularist immediately. The orbital orbits are very important in facial development. If the orbital globe is missing or too small the face will not grow properly. Conformers, which are plastic structures made by an ocularist, help support the growth of the eye socket and the bones in the face. As the child grows and the orbits and facial bones develop, the ocularist can make prosthetic eyes. Since each child is different, the age when the child is ready for a prosthetic eye varies. The ocularist works closely with the ophthalmologist and oculoplastic surgeon to make conformers and prosthetic eyes that are best for the child.
Researchers are currently working on locating the gene or genes involved with the developing eye. Finding these genes may lead to many answers about anophthalmia and enable geneticists to provide more accurate counseling and recurrence risks.
Where can we get support and more information?
ican(international children's anophthalmia network) is a family run support group for individuals with anophthalmia and their families. The support group puts out a newsletter 3-4 times a year, provides referrals for local resources, has a telephone helpline and has family gatherings.
Albert Einstein Medical Center (AEMC) in Philadelphia works together with ican and has a registry of individuals with anophthalmia/ microphthalmia from all over the world. This registry is compiling information on pregnancy histories, maternal medical histories, family histories as well as environmental exposures. The goal is to determine a more accurate incidence of anophthalmia and to better identify all the syndromes that include anophthalmia. This registry can be a wealth of information for individuals with anophthalmia, their families and health care providers.
American Society of Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive Surgery (ASOPS):
American Society of Ocularists (ASO):
National Society of Genetic Counselors(NSGC):
American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG):